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Subsequent efforts [Tsyganenko and Usmanov, 1982; Tsyganenko, 1987, 1989, 1996, 2002, 2003, Tsyganenko and Sitnov, 2005] resulted in more refined models, used since then in many studies.The principal goal of the data-based magnetosphere modeling is to extract full information from Data-based modeling of our dynamic magnetosphere (abstract) (An invited review, published in Annales Geophysicae, October 21, 2013) (Full article, PDF ~10MB).In this case, geomagnetic and interplanetary field lines connect across the magnetospheric boundary, which greatly enhances the transfer of the solar wind mass, energy, and electric field inside the magnetosphere.As a result, the magnetospheric field and plasma become involved in a convection, as illustrated in the In actuality, that kind of steady convection is rarely realized.The flow of plasma from the Sun, known as the solar wind, is the principal factor determining the space weather in our planetary system.This is why it is very important to know in advance its principal characteristics: particle density, bulk velocity, the strength and direction of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF).
This results in dramatic dynamical changes of the entire magnetospheric configuration, which culminate in magnetospheric storms, accompanied by an explosive conversion of large amounts of the solar wind energy into the kinetic energy of charged particles in the near-Earth space, manifested in polar auroral phenomena and ionospheric disturbances.On the bowl-shaped deformation of planetary equatorial current sheets (abstract) (Published in Geophysical Research Letters, February 4, 2014) Internally and externally induced deformations of the magnetospheric equatorial current as inferred from spacecraft data (abstract, Fortran source code for the equatorial current sheet model) (Published in Annales Geophysicae, January 6, 2015) (PDF ~11MB).A new forecasting model (TA15) of the magnetosphere, driven by optimal solar-wind coupling functions (abstract) (JGRA, October 7, 2015) (A concise description of the model, pdf~1.5MB) (Fortran source codes and yearly input parameter files for 1995-2015) Empirical modeling of the quiet and storm-time geosynchronous magnetic field (abstract) (Fortran source code, model parameter file, model fitting subsample, the fitting subsample format description) Yearly input parameter files for 1995-2016, & data format November 30, 2017: Due to requests from magnetospheric community members, a link is now added to a paper [Tsyganenko and Mukai, 2003] and fortran source codes, referring to model calculations of the central plasma sheet plasma parameters based on Geotail data (see the "Magnetospheric plasma" section above.) August 15, 2017: A new paper link added ("A hybrid approach to empirical magnetosphere modeling...") October 25, 2016: a new paper link added ("An empirical RBF model of the magnetosphere ...") April 20, 2016: update of the equatorial neutral sheet model subroutine (2015) March 9, 2016: a new paper (RBF) link added. March 23, 2015: update of TS05 model parameters for 2014, due to NSSDC revision of 2014 OMNI data.With the advent of space era and understanding the crucial role of the geomagnetic field in the dynamics of the Earth's upper atmosphere and radiation belts, a need was realized to extend the models from low to high altitudes, eventually including the entire magnetosphere, an integral part of our space environment.Modeling the magnetic field in that region is much more difficult, mostly because the magnetic field from external sources (currents in the magnetospheric plasma) rapidly outweighs the main field with growing distance from Earth.
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This task turns out to be even more complicated due to the fact that, unlike the main geomagnetic field that varies on a timescale of thousands of years, the Earth's magnetosphere is a very dynamical system, whose configuration depends on many internal and external factors.